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Sunday, April 28

  1. page home edited ... Here are a few topics that make the Minangkabau an even more unique culture! Individual Paper…
    ...
    Here are a few topics that make the Minangkabau an even more unique culture!
    Individual Papers {http://photo.lacina.net/image-1385-bull-the-symbol-of-minangkabau-lake-maninjau-indonesia.jpg}
    Click on the names belowhere to read theour individual essays on Minangkabauthe Minangkabau's society.
    Andrew's Paper
    Abby's Paper
    Libby's Paper
    Erin's Paper

    Have Questions?
    Email the Creators of the Site!
    (view changes)
  2. page spto1 edited ... 29 April 2013 The Relationship Between Adat and Islam in the Minangkabau People ... invasi…
    ...
    29 April 2013
    The Relationship Between Adat and Islam in the Minangkabau People
    ...
    invasion of
    multiple

    multiple
    areas by
    ...
    brought Christian
    traditions

    traditions
    to Middle
    ...
    the Padri
    Movement

    Movement
    reformed religious
    ...
    show the
    effects

    effects
    of this
    ...
    of Islamic
    beliefs and local practices.
    ...
    of Taiwan
    around

    around
    500 B.C.E.
    ...
    Sumatra due
    to

    to
    its abundance
    ...
    as “Alam
    Minangkabau,”

    Minangkabau,”
    meaning “The
    ...
    million Minangkabau
    comprise

    comprise
    this matrilineal
    ...
    2012). Despite
    being

    being
    founded nearly
    ...
    of their
    original

    original
    beliefs and
    ...
    term adat.
    Adat

    Adat
    is ambiguously
    ...
    society” (Blackwood
    2001).

    2001).
    This term
    ...
    native person
    (Blackwood

    (Blackwood
    2001). Abdullah
    ...
    social system
    elements.” According to Abdullah (1966), there are four classes of adat: “adaik nan sabana adaik (adat which is truly adat),
    adaik istiadaik (adat of ceremony’s), adaik nan taadaik (adat which has become adat), and adaik nan diadaikkan
    ...
    later three
    refer

    refer
    to supernatural
    ...
    of the
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    culture. Blackwood
    ...
    is their
    matrilineal

    matrilineal
    society. This
    ...
    particularly daughters.
    Such

    Such
    feministic views
    ...
    Minangkabau religion
    is also founded upon the belief in animism.
    ...
    tangible items,
    including

    including
    plants and
    ...
    the physical
    and

    and
    the spiritual
    ...
    Because of
    this,

    this,
    modern Minangkabau
    ...
    spirit (Marianelli,
    Huy,

    Huy,
    Mullen, Ahsler
    ...
    adat. These
    animistic beliefs remained untouched until the introduction of Islam in the 13th Century (Islam in Indonesia 2013).
    ...
    practicing Islam
    in

    in
    this region
    ...
    with Indonesia
    for

    for
    Islam to
    ...
    religious center
    which

    which
    later became
    ...
    of the
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    was largely
    ...
    Minangkabau, and
    that

    that
    the introduction
    ...
    Mullen, Ahsler
    2012;

    2012;
    Abdullah 1966).
    ...
    transition with
    many

    many
    symptoms of
    ...
    aspects of
    the

    the
    Minangkabau culture
    ...
    caused many
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    to search
    ...
    of Islam
    was

    was
    characteristic of
    ...
    Padri Movement.
    Abdullah

    Abdullah
    (1966) emphasized
    ...
    fellow community
    members,

    members,
    and religion
    ...
    cultural and
    religious

    religious
    attitudes that
    ...
    the Padri
    Movement

    Movement
    as a
    ...
    returning to
    Indonesia

    Indonesia
    from their
    ...
    Islamize Muslim
    villages”

    villages”
    (Esposito 2012).
    ...
    the Padri
    Movement

    Movement
    gave Islam
    ...
    Minangkabau culture.
    The

    The
    Padri Movement
    ...
    notable influence
    was

    was
    the “greater
    ...
    having two
    separate

    separate
    attitudes dependent
    ...
    being, the
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    adopted one
    ...
    1966). This
    allowed

    allowed
    for the
    ...
    utmost importance,
    however,

    however,
    to note
    ...
    be exemplary
    of

    of
    religious designs
    ...
    mamakai,’ [meaning]
    ‘religion

    ‘religion
    designs, adat
    ...
    retained many
    aspects

    aspects
    of their
    ...
    authority over
    property

    property
    and ownership
    ...
    2012). Further
    evidence

    evidence
    of the
    ...
    of Minangkabau
    mosques,

    mosques,
    as well
    ...
    - Minangkabau2012).
    Additionally,

    Additionally,
    the strict
    ...
    month of
    Ramadan,

    Ramadan,
    giving alms,
    ...
    transition the
    Minangkabau made into a more religious-focused culture (Religion of the Minangkabau 2011).
    ...
    deal of
    turmoil

    turmoil
    or resentment
    ...
    examples of
    bloodshed

    bloodshed
    and violence
    ...
    of the
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    social system
    ...
    beliefs. The
    Minangkabau

    Minangkabau
    have found
    ...
    that define
    them.

    them.
    Keeping in
    ...
    be able
    to

    to
    benefit from
    ...
    world is
    a

    a
    little more peaceful.
    References
    Abdullah, Taufik. 1966. "Adat and Islam: An Examination of Conflict in Minangkabau." Indonesia 1-24.
    ...
    Britannica, "Animism." Accessed April 21, 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25819/animism.
    Esposito, J. 2012. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press.
    ...
    Nov. 2012.
    Marianelli,

    Marianelli,
    M., Huy,
    ...
    April, 2013.
    http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com
    "Minangkabau." Last modified 2008. Accessed April 20, 2013. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Minangkabau.
    "Minangkabau Society." Accessed April 15, 2013. http://sc2218.wetpaint.com/page/Minangkabau Society.
    ...
    21, 2013.
    http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1804?_hi=0&_pos=3.
    ...
    Culture -
    Minangkabau." Last modified 2012. Accessed April 26, 2013. http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Minangkabau-
    Religion-and Expressive-Culture.html.
    "Religion of the Minangkabau." Last modified 2011 . Accessed April 22, 2013. http://minankabauinfo.wikispaces.com/Religion of the Minangkabau.
    Schrieke, B. 1920. "Contribution to the bibliography of the current religious movement in the west coast of Sumatra." T.B.G. 254-256.
    ...
    Nov. 2012.
    Wilkinson, R. 1867-1941. “Law: introductory sketch.” Ethnography of the Malays of Southeast Asia.
    Abby's Paper
    (view changes)
  3. page spto1 edited spto1 Andrew's Paper Andrew Pennington Professor Hill Introduction to Anthropology 29 April…
    spto1
    Andrew's Paper
    Andrew Pennington
    Professor Hill
    Introduction to Anthropology
    29 April 2013
    The Relationship Between Adat and Islam in the Minangkabau People
    Religious beliefs can heavily influence the social structure of any culture. Historically this can be seen through the invasion of
    multiple areas by major world religions such as Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam. For example, the Crusades brought Christian
    traditions to Middle Eastern areas where Islam had previously been the primary influence on the culture. During the 1800’s the Padri
    Movement reformed religious beliefs and basic social structures of Indonesian ethnic groups. One of the cultures that show the
    effects of this movement are the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. As a result, their culture reflects a combination of Islamic
    beliefs and local practices.
    The Padang Highlands of West Sumatra in Indonesia became inhabited by Austronesian-speaking explorers of Taiwan
    around 500 B.C.E. (Minangkabau 2008). These ancient people most likely stayed in the mountainous regions of West Sumatra due
    to its abundance of fresh water, rich soil, and cool climates (Minangkabau 2008). This region is referred to by the locals as “Alam
    Minangkabau,” meaning “The World of the Minangkabau” (Minangkabau Highlands 2013). Today, over 8 million Minangkabau
    comprise this matrilineal society that ranks as the fourth largest ethnic group of the region (Religion – Then and Now 2012). Despite
    being founded nearly 2500 years ago and having experienced heavy foreign influence, the modern Minangkabau hold many of their
    original beliefs and practices which are denoted by the term adat.
    Adat is ambiguously defined as the “local custom which regulates the interaction of the members of a society” (Blackwood
    2001). This term encapsulates all ethical, legal, and social judgments and expectations that comprise the life of a native person
    (Blackwood 2001). Abdullah (1966) helps to narrow the meaning of adat by explaining it as the “non-Islamic social system
    elements.” According to Abdullah (1966), there are four classes of adat: “adaik nan sabana adaik (adat which is truly adat),
    adaik istiadaik (adat of ceremony’s), adaik nan taadaik (adat which has become adat), and adaik nan diadaikkan
    (adat which is made adat).” The first class is considered both eternal and identical to the laws of nature while the later three
    refer to supernatural laws (Abdullah 1966). What comprises natural and supernatural laws, however, is not well known outside of the
    Minangkabau culture. Blackwood (2001) suggests that one of the most striking features of the Minangkabau’s social system is their
    matrilineal society. This structure provides women with the sole power to pass down possessions to children, particularly daughters.
    Such feministic views are rarely observed in most ancient, modern, and ‘uncivilized’ cultures. Aside from adat, Minangkabau religion
    is also founded upon the belief in animism.
    The first Minangkabau are believed to have held animistic views toward the universe, a notion that all tangible items,
    including plants and animals, contain a spiritual character (Animism 2013). This assumes that a separation between the physical
    and the spiritual is non-existent, making it possible for the spiritual realm to influence the material world (Animism 2013). Because of
    this, modern Minangkabau frequently attribute illness and death to the capturing of an individual’s soul by an evil spirit (Marianelli,
    Huy, Mullen, Ahsler 2012). According to Marianelli, Huy, Mullen, and Ashler (2012) animism acted as the foundation for adat. These
    animistic beliefs remained untouched until the introduction of Islam in the 13th Century (Islam in Indonesia 2013).
    Modern West Sumatra is one of the most Islamized areas of Indonesia (Abdullah 1966). The Minangkabau practicing Islam
    in this region are of the Sunni sect (eHRAF Malay). It took roughly two to three hundred years after its initial contact with Indonesia
    for Islam to spread to the Minangkabau of West Sumatra (Islam in Indonesia 2013). Except for the opening of a religious center
    which later became the only authoritative power in religious matters, Abdullah (1966) argues that the early Islamization of the
    Minangkabau was largely unrecorded. It is assumed that the basic beliefs of Islam were seldom followed by the Minangkabau, and
    that the introduction of Islam scarcely threatened most of the previous beliefs associated with adat (Marianelli, Huy, Mullen, Ahsler
    2012; Abdullah 1966). However, Abdullah (1966) describes the years leading up to the 19th Century as a “period of transition with
    many symptoms of social disintegration…in the form of social demoralization and deterioration.” In other words, the social aspects of
    the Minangkabau culture were at odds with their religious practices. Esposito (2012) argues that this imbalance caused many
    Minangkabau to search for “social renovation,” an aspect of their lives discovered through Islam. This search for and finding of Islam
    was characteristic of the Minangkabau Padri Movement.
    Abdullah (1966) emphasized the distinction between adat as an individual’s attitude toward his or her fellow community
    members, and religion as an individual’s relation to transcendental beings. It was that precise separation between cultural and
    religious attitudes that led to the Padri Movement (Schrieke 1920). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2012) defines the Padri
    Movement as a Sumatran revivalist movement against the Dutch in 1803 and ending in 1837. Led by three scholars returning to
    Indonesia from their pilgrimage to Mecca, the Padri Movement attempted to “reform local religious practices, [and] Islamize Muslim
    villages” (Esposito 2012). Although the Dutch ultimately won victory against the three leaders and their followers, the Padri
    Movement gave Islam a strong foothold with which to integrate itself into the Minangkabau culture.
    The Padri Movement impacted the Minangkabau in multiple ways. As Abdullah (1966) suggests, the most notable influence
    was the “greater assimilation of religious doctrine within Minangkabau adat as the ideal pattern of behavior.” Rather than having two
    separate attitudes dependent upon whether an individual was interacting with a fellow citizen or a transcendental being, the
    Minangkabau adopted one basic standard of behavior defined by their newly strengthened spiritual practices (Abdullah 1966). This
    allowed for the rejuvenation of prior social disintegration and led to a more structured society as a whole. It is of utmost importance,
    however, to note that religious beliefs did not replace adat. Rather, the Minangkabau felt that adat regulations should be exemplary
    of religious designs (Abdullah 1966). The best phrase to summarize this belief is “‘agam mangato, adat mamakai,’ [meaning]
    ‘religion designs, adat applies’” (Abdullah 1966). Because adat was not overshadowed by Islam, the Minangkabau retained many
    aspects of their previous social system, particularly the matrilineal society. This allowed women to continue their authority over
    property and ownership rights, while providing men with opportunities to become religious leaders (MacGregor 2012). Further
    evidence of the symbiotic relationship between adat and Islam can be observed through the architectural style of Minangkabau
    mosques, as well as the spreading of religious schools throughout Indonesia (Religion and Expressive Culture - Minangkabau2012).
    Additionally, the strict adherence to the five pillars of Islam (confession of faith, five daily prayers, fasting during the month of
    Ramadan, giving alms, and pilgrimage to Mecca) and celebration of Islamic holidays clearly represents the smooth transition the
    Minangkabau made into a more religious-focused culture (Religion of the Minangkabau 2011).
    It is inspiring to observe a culture that has so naturally accepted religious beliefs into their culture without a great deal of
    turmoil or resentment towards those who brought them that religion. I find this uplifting because of the countless examples of
    bloodshed and violence that has historically followed the introduction of religion to a society. The re-structuralization of the
    Minangkabau social system currently allows for a harmonic balance between traditional customs and religious beliefs. The
    Minangkabau have found a unique way to live in accordance with their religion while adhering to the cultural practices that define
    them. Keeping in mind the current conflicts between Israel and Palestine, and North Korea and South Korea, our world may be able
    to benefit from the example of tolerance, acceptance, and balance from the Minangkabau. In doing so, we may find that our world is
    a little more peaceful.
    References
    Abdullah, Taufik. 1966. "Adat and Islam: An Examination of Conflict in Minangkabau." Indonesia 1-24.
    Beyer, L. 2001. “The Women of Islam.” Time Magazine, November 25
    Blackwood, Evelyn. 2001. "Representing Women: The Politics of Minangkabau Adat Writings." The Journal of Asian Studies (JSTOR Arts & Sciences) 1 (125).
    Britannica, "Animism." Accessed April 21, 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25819/animism.
    Esposito, J. 2012. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press.
    MacGregor, Fiona. The Amazing Minangkabau, Matriarchs of West Sumatra.Web. 16 Nov. 2012.
    Marianelli, M., Huy, R., Mullen, K., Ahsler, G. 2012. Minangkabau Religion - Then and Now. Accessed April, 2013.
    http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com
    "Minangkabau." Last modified 2008. Accessed April 20, 2013. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Minangkabau.
    "Minangkabau Society." Accessed April 15, 2013. http://sc2218.wetpaint.com/page/Minangkabau Society.
    Oxford Islamic Studies Online, "Padri Movement." Last modified 2012. Accessed April 21, 2013.
    http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1804?_hi=0&_pos=3.
    Rahayu, Sutria. “The Minangkabau of West Sumatra (Friendly Borders).” Web. 18 Nov. 2012. "Religion and Expressive Culture -
    Minangkabau." Last modified 2012. Accessed April 26, 2013. http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Minangkabau-
    Religion-and Expressive-Culture.html.
    "Religion of the Minangkabau." Last modified 2011 . Accessed April 22, 2013. http://minankabauinfo.wikispaces.com/Religion of the Minangkabau.
    Schrieke, B. 1920. "Contribution to the bibliography of the current religious movement in the west coast of Sumatra." T.B.G. 254-256.
    Shapiro, Danielle. “Indonesia's Minangkabau: The World's Largest Matrilineal Society - The Daily Beast.” 16 Nov. 2012.
    Wilkinson, R. 1867-1941. “Law: introductory sketch.” Ethnography of the Malays of Southeast Asia.
    Abby's Paper
    Libby's Paper
    Erin's Paper

    (view changes)

Friday, April 26

  1. page spto1 edited spto1
    2:22 pm
  2. page Special topics edited Check out this more in-depth analyses of special topics!
    Check out this more in-depth analyses of special topics!
    (view changes)
    2:19 pm
  3. page home edited {http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} 3213.jp…
    {http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} 3213.jpg
    {http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} 3213.jpg
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    {3213.jpg}
    Welcome to the Minangkabau Culture!Gettysburg College, Introduction to Anthropology 103
    About the Minangkabau
    (view changes)
  4. page home edited {http://www.yangsquare.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/minangkabau.jpg} {http://gcanthminangkab…

    {http://www.yangsquare.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/minangkabau.jpg}
    {http://gcanthminangkabau.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=NaN&h=NaN} 3213.jpg
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    Welcome to the Minangkabau Culture!Gettysburg College, Introduction to Anthropology 103
    ...
    the Minangkabau {http://cdn.ridwanaz.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/suku-bangsa-Minangkabau.jpg}
    Click

    Click
    here to
    ...
    about the {http://www.yangsquare.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/minangkabau.jpg}
    Location, Environment, and Population,
    as well as the Environmental Issues, Language, and Traditional Adaptive Strategies of the Minangkabau!
    ...
    Interested in politics? Click here to learn about the political organization of the Minangkabau
    Social Structure
    ...
    and Religion. {http://cdn.ridwanaz.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/suku-bangsa-Minangkabau.jpg}
    Effects of Colonialism and the World System
    Click here to learn about the effects of colonialism and the world system!
    {http://photo.lacina.net/image-1385-bull-the-symbol-of-minangkabau-lake-maninjau-indonesia.jpg}
    Modern Globalization
    Look through the Modern Globalization page to learn about the Minangkabau's economy, global market, and modernization.
    Interesting Topics
    Here are a few topics that make the Minangkabau an even more unique culture!
    Individual Papers {http://photo.lacina.net/image-1385-bull-the-symbol-of-minangkabau-lake-maninjau-indonesia.jpg}
    Click on the names below to read the individual essays on Minangkabau society.

    Andrew's Paper
    Click here to read Andrew's essay on the relationship between adat and Islam in the Minangkabau society.
    Abby's Paper
    Add a brief description about your paper, yo!
    Libby's Paper
    Add a brief description here!
    Erin's Paper
    Add a brief description!
    Have Questions?
    Email the Creators of the Site!
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Thursday, April 25

  1. page About the Minangkabau edited THIS PAGE HAS BEEN MARKED FOR DELETION.
    THIS PAGE HAS BEEN MARKED FOR DELETION.
    (view changes)
  2. page home edited ... {http://photo.lacina.net/image-1385-bull-the-symbol-of-minangkabau-lake-maninjau-indonesia.jpg…
    ...
    {http://photo.lacina.net/image-1385-bull-the-symbol-of-minangkabau-lake-maninjau-indonesia.jpg}
    Modern Globalization
    Look through the Modern Globalization page to learn about the Minangkabau's economy, global market, and modernization.
    Interesting Topics
    Here are a few topics that make the Minangkabau an even more unique culture!
    Andrew's Paper
    Click here to read Andrew's essay on the relationship between adat and Islam in the Minangkabau society.
    Abby's Paper
    Add a brief description about your paper, yo!
    Libby's Paper
    Add a brief description here!
    Erin's Paper
    Add a brief description!

    Have Questions?
    Email the Creators of the Site!
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